Abuse Recovery Ministries & Services

I know that not everyone identifies as a Christian and I understand that, often, women who have experienced different kinds of abuse, especially those who are married and attend Christian churches or are members of certain Christian denominations, may have very tragic and distorted histories with the way the Bible has been taught and how they may have been treated or admonished to stay in relationship with their abusers. As a matter of fact, this has frequently been a way where women who have been physically, sexually, mentally, and emotionally victimized by their abusers may also have experienced a form of abuse known as spiritual abuse.

In our modern society where so many people of faith hold firm positions on matters such as marriage equality and a woman’s right to choose what happens with her body, even if she is pregnant and the expression of these positions is done in loud and vociferous ways with messages of hate and hell, spiritual abuse can happen indirectly, causing those who have suffered at the hands of human men and women who do not have a connection to a faith community, the Bible, God, or Christ and wind up taking paths and making choices which are at odds with biblical principles and values to experience spiritual abuse through the witnessing of vitriol and hate messages publicly displayed and declared as spiritual truth.

Although I consider myself a Christian, I am uneasy with my faith much of the time and am still working through my understanding and beliefs about who God is and His character. Some might even consider me a heretic and misguided because I have doubts about doctrine and teachings regarding hell, condemnation, and God’s views on wickedness and sin. This means that I have a tendency to be somewhat cynical and suspicious when encountering many ministries which are in place to assist people who are often marginalized and treated as victims in our society.

The thing that I’ve been realizing though, as I learn more about myself and my responses to how I’ve been abused in my past, long before anything that was experienced in the almost 18 year toxically codependent relationship which has had a lot of similarities to Domestic Violence relationships in its outcomes, and how I’ve become the person I have been, is that I never had a healthy picture of parents or adults, therefore I also never developed a healthy picture of who God is and what His character is like. I’m not alone in this.

As children, we form our first sense of self and identity from the adults and caregivers in our lives. We also come to understand God, His character, His will, and His role in our lives from these early, foundational relationships and how they are formed. This informs our continued development of personal and individual identity. When we grow up without a healthy picture of God and other people, especially caregivers and people in authority in our lives, we wind up without healthy and constructive pictures of what healthy and constructive adult relationships look like. This then becomes foundational and instrumental tothe kinds of relationships we develop and maintain.

Now that I am transitioning from toxic codependency with a person whose personal identity and sense of personhood is as damaged and distorted as my own has been, it is important that I learn what healthy, functional, and constructive looks like in order for me to learn how be be healthy, functional, and constructive. I need to learn what it looks like spiritually regarding God and His character, because that is the filter which guides and informs my own personal sense of identity.

Being in a Her Journey group through Abuse Recovery Ministries and Services is teaching me this. There may be some doctrinal issues that may arise which I am uncomfortable with. However, the purpose of this group is not to discuss or debate doctrine or theology. It’s purpose is to rebuild a healthy, constructive, and functional picture of God, His character, and how He views and loves His children, specifically those who have been abused and who have deveolped a distorted sense of self and a distorted understanding of God’s person, character, and will.

This class and group may not be for everyone, or it may not be within every person’s comfort zone. However, whether you are a Christian or not, whether you believe in a diety or many dieties or none at all, coming into the room and experiencing first hand the love, acceptance, and constructive teaching about the fact that we are meant to be loved and are intended for a life and a purpose other than to serve as another person’s physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, and/or spiritual punching bag and garbage receptacle for all their bad moods and problems, is a good thing to hear and learn about.

There are twelve classes covering many topics including boundaries and other things which may not seem to be spiritual in their focus, but have critical spiritual components. These classes are free and can be taken as often as needed. There is a camaraderie from engaging with other women who are going through their own journeys of healing and growth.

If you have a different spiritual background and perspective from Christianity, the principles of God’s character and the kind of life He wants someone coming out of abuse to grow in are still valid and valuable teachings which can have concrete life application. Take what you need, what serves you, and leave the rest behind.

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Home Free: A Child Advocacy and Parent Support Service for Families

In my first post for the first month of this new year, I shared my story by offering readers A look at Domestic Violence. I gave an overview of my personal history and the struggles that my family and I have experienced, which have been clearly identified by others as Domestic Violence. “Others” being my now adult children, friends and acquaintances, and various professions/service providers over the years. Yet, I’ve always struggled with the labels, categorizations, and definitions which are associated with the words: Domestic Violence.

In Changing Perceptions, I asked several questions about what comes to mind for you when you read or hear the words Domestic Violence. If you’re anything like me, you may think of a manipulative, control-freak, who is on a massive power trip, and truly enjoys the systematic destruction and subjugation of the ego and personal identity of the partner in the relationship. You know, the sociopathic stalkers in movies like Sleeping With the Enemy and Enough.

According to the Parenting Support Advocate with the VOA Home Free program I met with, it takes an average of seven attempts for a person who has experienced Domestic Violence to leave the abusive relationship permanently. “Average” meaning that there are those who may have done so successfully the first try and others who had to make many more attempts, combine all of the reported efforts and divide by the number of people who were queried in the research and that’s the average number.

I shared with her how uncomfortable I have been with the DV label and it’s associated titles/roles: Batterer, Abuser, Victim, Surviver, Perpetrator, Willing Participant. I’m not uncomfortable with or opposed to them when they are applied to situations and circumstances with clear-cut physical and verbal abuse where the one party physically harms and/or uses verbal threats, violent language, and uses his or her body and words in a way to diminish and control the other party. It’s the situations and circumstances like the one I have been in where the actions and behaviors of the “abuser” are more likely the result of a combination of neurological/cognitive developmental delays which are less than obvious in combination with some unidentified & untreated mental health issues, which may be a combination of genetics and environmental factors present during the developmental years of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Especially when that person has made the effort to grow and change through participation in therapuetic processes.

The outcomes may be similar, if not identical. Which is why it is so often met with the overly simplistic method of categorization, “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck . . . ”

I’m a very firm believer in, “Don’t judge a book by its cover.”

The representative from the Home Free program has been very constructive for me to speak to, interact with, and learn from. She has not informed me of her view and take of my situation and circumstances. She hasn’t tried to convince me why I should use or accept these labels or define what I have experienced as Domestic Violence. She has listened with clear intention to understand me and my experiences. She has not given me “knowing” looks or sly glances when I have spoken about the difficulties I have with the labels which are part and parcel of receiving services through the domestic violence resources and systems. She has reassured me that I am the expert on my life and on my relationships and that she is here as an Advocate for me, not as a therapist, counselor, or other service provider.

When we met for the second time, yesterday, it was in my home. She and I met in the living room while the Child Advocate met with my five year old daughter and they played together in her room full of toys. The Child Advocate is not a play therapist, but her role is to be present and engaged with the child, following the child’s lead during play and interaction. If the child brings up emotions or thoughts which are difficult or confusing regarding anything the child has witnessed or experienced, whether it is related to the relationship issues between the partners in the domestic violence relationship or anything else, then the Child Advocate’s task it to help the child talk through and process those thoughts and feelings in healthy and constructive ways, understanding that he/she is not in any way responsible for any of the things which have happened or responsible for the feelings and words of others.

Historically, I have not done a great job at seeing and understanding when my children were experiencing difficulties in how they were perceiving and internalizing those perceptions regarding the things I was dealing with in our lives together. Dealing with the cycles of depression and hypomania, being severely codependent, and not having processed and dealt with my own emotional and psychological trauma from childhood all blinded and deafened me to the things my two oldest children were struggling with. I did the best I could to get them help and services, connect them to others who seemed more knowledgeable or better qualified than myself, to help them. However, I wasn’t emotionally or psychologically present and available to help them as their mother. I’m determined to do better by their youngest sibling.

That is why I’m so grateful to the Home Free program and the people I am working with in it. They are not only able to see and advocate for what my littlest is experiencing, they are here to help me see and advocate for her as well.

Volunteers of America Home Free Program

Emergency Hotline: (503) 771-5503 (Mon – Fri, 8AM – 6PM)

Business Line: (503) 239-3929

“Home Free’s mission is to assist adults and children surviving domestic violence to move not just toward safety, but toward freedom and all that the word home suggests.

Our programs provide long-term, post-crisis support designed to prevent victims from having to return to an abusive home. Our commitment to reaching survivors means mobile, active advocacy that reduces the barriers to domestic violence support services. All of our services are free, flexible, and individualized, and driven by survivors’ needs and goals.”

Blog for Mental Health 2014

“I pledge my commitment to the Blog for Mental Health 2014 Project. I will blog about mental health topics not only for myself, but for others. By displaying this badge, I show my pride, dedication, and acceptance for mental health. I use this to promote mental health education in the struggle to erase stigma.”  ~ A Canvas of the Minds

Blog For Mental Health 2014

I personally have dealt with mental health issues and have family members and friends who have done so, identified or not, throughout the entirety of my life.

There are a number of things I didn’t know and understand for a very long time about Mental Health is that much of the “acting out” behavior of adults behaving badly – things like compulsive behaviors, out of control/extreme emotions and mood swings, addictions, domestic violence, child abuse, sexual abuse – can all have their roots in poor mental health and/or be exacerbated by lack of mental health support.

All of those things I just named, I have experienced and in a lot of ways continue to experience on a daily basis.

I knew I had depression. I’ve been seeking services and treatment for it in one way or another since I was pre-adolescent. My first therapeutic encounter was an Incest Survivors group when I was 11 years old. A few years later, after my mom’s depression and my out of control, angry little girl issues clashed, and she turned guardianship of me over to her younger brother and moved away, we got a call stating she’d killed herself. That single event, in combination with everything that had gone on before, I can now see, flipped a switch in my brain, that has kept me on a psychological and emotional spinning, roller coaster ride of chaos, overwhelm, codependency and dysfunction, for the past 33 years.

It has impacted, informed, and impaired all of my relationships with other people: family, friends, co-workers, people in my faith community. It has affected my ability to parent my children in healthy and constructive ways, setting the stage for them to experience psychological/emotional neglect and abuse from me and partners in my dysfunctional and distorted adult relationships. It has impaired my ability to work and educate myself toward achieving my personal and professional dreams and potential.

I have carried and lived with the stigma and shame, blame, and labelling from myself and others because, as a mother, I should have known better, done better, been better.

It’s taken me a tremendously long time to get to where I am today, admitting my powerlessness over the fact that my brain and emotions are not under my control and that I have to be completely honest about that with myself and with others, and especially with my Higher Power, if I am to be able to get healing and live a healthier, more functional life.

I am pledging to participate in this Bloggers for Mental Health 2014 project in an effort to educate, inform, offer resources, reduce stigma, and raise awareness and sensitivity to the Mental Health Issues and Challenges that people experience, every single day . . . people whom we love and care about, people we work with, people we live next door to, people we go to church with, attend school with, or drive down the road beside. People who may just be us.

A Canvas of the Minds is a community of individual bloggers who either experience or whose lives have been impacted by another who experiences Mental Health issues and challenges. The blog posts shared on Canvas are focused on Mental Health issues and concerns. The personal blogs of the individual bloggers can run the gamut and are not necessarily exclusive or focused on Mental Health issues, however, reading through them with the context and understanding of the impacts and challenges the writers have experienced due to Mental Health issues while reading whatever it is that they have written can provide a rich and layered understanding of people who deal with Mental Health challenges as being more than a diagnosis or partner/caregiver of someone with a diagnosis.

Reading through their posts can offer hope and the knowledge that, however isolating and debilitating a Mental Health diagnosis may be, it is possible to survive, live, and even thrive with one.

It is our collective story of hope, strength, experience, and wisdom.

Join the conversation, read, follow, comment, write, and share:

On Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/acanvasoftheminds

On Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/canvasminds/

Cell Phones for Low-Income Households

I lost my phone today.

I’ve been calling it a handheld computer. I did everything with it. I mean EVERYTHING!

I used it’s calendar and alerts to help me stay on track and on time with all the different appointments, groups, and meetings. I used it’s timer to keep track of when it was time to transfer laundry, track time limits and warnings for both my daughter and myself. I had apps for all of my writing and online interactions. All of my contacts for service providers, friends, and acquaintances. You name it, my phone had that information in it. So, I’m a little freaked out that the phone has gone missing, because whoever finds has access to all of that data.

I’m not afraid of losing the data, because most of it is backed up through the apps themselves and either on this computer or online.

What does concern me most, however, is not having a way to call someone if there’s an emergency with myself or my daughter. There isn’t a way for my adult children to call me if they experience an emergency, either.

I also need a way to call service providers and for them to call me.

I am currently without an income other than SNAP benefits.

Which actually means that I qualify for the Lifeline Program for Low-Income Consumers, a federal assistance program to provide households at or below 135% of the Federal Poverty Line (FPL) with either discounted or free phone service via land lines or pre-paid cell phone services.

“To participate in the program, consumers must either have an income that is at or below 135% of the federal Poverty Guidelines or participate in one of the following assistance programs:

Federal rules prohibit eligible low-income consumers from receiving more than one Lifeline discount per household.  An eligible consumer may receive a discount on either a wireline or wireless service, but not both.  A consumer whose household currently is receiving more than one Lifeline service must select a single Lifeline provider and contact the other provider to de-enroll from their program. Consumers violating this rule may also be subject to criminal and/or civil penalties.” (Source: http://www.fcc.gov/lifeline)

The Universal Service Adminstrative Company oversees the Lifeline Program. Eligibility can be verified and Service Providers in each state can be located by navigating to: http://www.lifelinesupport.org/ls/.

The following highlights the cell phone providers in Oregon. The cell phones are from pre-paid service providers and the plans vary in what services and quantities they provide to Lifeline customers:

  • Assurance Wireless offers 250 minutes/250 texts each month for free, with other paid-plan options for additional minutes. 800-395-2108
  • AT&T Mobility doesn’t have a free plan, but offers 300 Anytime Minutes /1000 Night & Weekend Minutes with Nationwide Long Distance Included for $12.24/mo. 800-377-9450
  • Cricket Communications offers a $10/mo. discount for eligible customers. 800-975-3708
  • U.S. Cellular does not have a free plan. Paid plans are available for 300 anytime minutes for $29.99 or 700 for $39.99. Both plans have options for receiving unlimited incoming calls from a wide area; it is an additional $6/mo. to add this feature on the 300 min/mo. plan, but is included at no additional cost on the 700 min/mo. plan. Both plans offer wide area night and weekend minutes for an additional $6/mo. Voice Mail, Call Waiting, Caller ID, Call Forwarding, Three-Way Calling and Incoming Text Messages. Wide Area appears to mean nationwide calling. 800-447-1339
  • SafeLink Wireless offers 250 minutes/1,000 texts for free provided by TracFone Wireless. 800-SAFELINK

If you or someone you know is having difficulty maintaining telephone service, is receiving assistance through a qualified federally funded subsidy assistance program OR has a household income at or below 135% of the Federal Poverty Line, help is available.

The Recovery Group: An online Overeaters Anonymous resource, not just for overeaters

A couple of days ago I wrote about Twelve Step Recovery Resources. The links shared there are for those who may just be beginning to explore recovery and learn about it without already knowing or understanding what their “drug/addiction of choice is.

This is the time of year when people resolve to get healthier, get in shape, lose weight, tone up, slim down, get fit to fit in…

Many have learned to hate their bodies, to hate themselves because of their bodies. Some have a love/hate relationship with food. Others experience Body Dysmorphia, Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge Eating Disorder, Food Restricting, Laxative Abuse, Exercise Abuse.

Compulsive Eating Disorders are probably undiagnosed, unidentified, unrecognized, and untreated in significant numbers in the United States. Possibly elsewhere as well.

Uncontrollable, out of control, overwhelming thoughts, emotions, compulsions to shovel everything that can be eaten or fast until the mirror’s distorted image stops showing dimples in the skin where dimples shouldn’t go, wrack and rule so many of us. We are ashamed. We hide the evidence of our binges. Others hide the evidence of the food they pretended to eat. Still others experience a paralyzing inability to let food pass their lips and their bodies immediately, automatically, involuntarily eject whatever has been taken in.

Type II Diabetes; Hypoglycemia; Hyperglycemia; Insulin Resistance; Ulcers in the stomach, throat, and mouth; Kidney failure; Dehydration; Heart disease; Stroke; on and on and on the lists go on.

Diets don’t work ~ or not for long. Weight lost finds it’s way back and brings extra friends along for the ride. Weight found soon disappears again. Both are visible no matter how invisible the body’s wearer tries to be.

Sometimes starting in the early childhood of those being cared for by others who learned to restrict or binge at the tables of their forebears.

On and on and on the cycles go: Up, Down, Side to Side, Overweight, Underweight – Nobody’s perfect at the perfect weight.

Come home to OA. Let us love you while you learn to love yourself. Keep coming back until you get your miracle, then stay and share yours with others until they get theirs. Accept. Validate. Love.

Boundaries: No crosstalk – no interrupting, no judging, no feedback, no advice.

Remember: Who shows up here, what is shared here, when you leave here, let it stay here.

Anonymous: First names only. Psuedonyms and screen names are safe too.

TYFS ~ Thank you for sharing your ESH ~ experience, strength, and hope. KCB ~ Keep Coming Back

It works if you work it.

I’ll see you in the rooms and catch you on the loops. Meetings every three hours, on the hour, on the 3’s ET.

The Recovery Group Meetings ~ http://www.therecoverygroup.org/support/meetings.html

Choose a doorway: Doorway 1 is the “pretty” version of the room. Doorway 2 is the “old school” veneer. Same room, same meeting, same folks.

Through these doors you will find HOPE.

Changing Perceptions

What is the first thing that comes to mind when you hear the term, Domestic Violence?

Is it Sleeping with the Enemy with Julia Roberts?

or the JLo movie, Enough?

Is it sensationalized headlines in local and national news media?

USA Today: Domestic Violence On the Job: Prepare for the Worst in Your Workplace

Portland’s 2013 homicide list: Domestic disputes, fights outside bars, gang shootings

What comes to mind when you hear the terms: Batterer, Abuser, Perpertrator? Is it all the various actors and actresses portraying soulless, remorseless, sociopathic, and psychopathic killers without a conscience? Is it the Pimp, the Drug Lord, the Alcoholic/Addict?

Who do you see when you think of a DV victim? Do you see the mousy, brow-beaten, kowtowing figure of a modern hausfrau? Does she look like someone you know?

What are your feelings about these images and notions of the kind of people who are involved in Domestic Violence? He’s bad? He’s evil? She’s weak? She brings it on herself? They’re both nuts, they deserve each other? What’s WRONG with them?

What if I were to tell you that these are some of the contributing factors to me staying and returning to my almost 18 year toxic and dysfunctional relationship? What if there are others, like myself and my relational partner, who don’t fit into these dirty, neat little boxes? What if, when we have tried to reach out, because our stories didn’t look or sound like these, we were dismissed, scoffed at, and scorned? What if we saw some of the things that fit, but they didn’t quite fit, and there were other things going on, like mental and physical illnesses, which we didn’t realize or understand are often part of the larger picture around Domestic Violence? What if we only thought we could get help if there was an actual crime?

What if these movies, headlines, and notions are true, but incomplete representations of what abuse means, what it is, what it looks like, and how it impacts the lives of the people experiencing in, whichever side they may be on?

I had an amazing conversation yesterday with Davonna Livingston, author of “Voices Behind the Razorwire” and founder of Changing Perceptions, “an organization dedicated to working with anyone who has been affected by abuse.”

Changing Perceptions is a nonprofit organization that utilizes peer-based support and a writing curriculum to provide measurable outcomes for victims of abuse and neglect. The program focuses on helping victims of abuse regain their feelings of control by encouraging them to stop thinking of themselves as victims and to begin to live their lives as survivors.
This transformation begins with having their experience validated and given a purpose.

I’m meeting with her in a couple of weeks. I’m looking forward to it. I’m actually feeing excited, like something really big is about to happen from this. We’ll see.

In the meantime, if you or anyone you know hase experienced abuse or neglect, as a child or as an adult, consider exploring and sharing this resource as a tool for healing.

Recovery Resources for Healing, Growth, and Wellbeing

In yesterday’s post on Domestic Violence, I provided a couple of links to resources someone who is experiencing or has experienced Domestic Violence can access as part of their healing and recovery processes. The fact of the matter is that even if we aren’t in a relationship where Domestic Violence is present, we may still be in a relationship where there is major dysfunction happening, in any number of ways. If we are in a relationship with someone who experiences compulsive or addictive behaviors, or if we experience them ourselves, there is dysfunction which could create the same effects in our lives as if we were in a Domestic Violence relationship: Isolation, Loss of Identity, and Cycles of Abuse.

Cycle of Abuse image obtained from the University of Tennesee, Knoxville, Division of Student Life's Safety, Environment, and Education Center page on Relationship Violence

Cycle of Abuse image obtained from the University of Tennesee, Knoxville, Division of Student Life’s Safety, Environment, and Education Center page on Relationship Violence

I have come to recognize and realize that I have compulsive behaviors and tendencies in my relationships with others and in my relationship with food. These behaviors and tendencies are directly linked to the chronic depression I have experienced since adolescence and possibly earlier. This means that when I entered into the relationship I’m in the process of changing, almost 18 years ago, I brought in thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and experiences which contributed to the dysfunctions and the damage to myself and others from being in the relationship.

In order to heal and become more functional as an individual and as a mother, as a friend and co-worker, or any other relational role I will take on or find myself in, I have to take ownership of MY part and process. I have to let go of fear. I have to stop focusing on the other person(s) in whatever relationship I may be experiencing difficulty in.

I am a codependent. I am a compulsive over/undereater. I am a perfectionist who gets immobilized by the reality and truth that I will never be perfect or be able to do the things I want to do perfectly.

All of these things have played into and enabled the isolation, the conflict, the tension, and the difficulties in all of my important relationships. Being able to recognize and admit these things is just the beginning of the journey.

Therapy is needed, for sure. However, experience has taught me that therapy alone is not the solution. Gathering information and learning about these issues is helpful, but, again, it is not going to create the change which is needed. Self-will and self-determination have not worked either. I know because I’ve spent more than two decades trying to help myself and help those around me into being better, doing better, and very little has improved. In fact, sitting at my computer after having spent both Christmas and New Year’s Eve alone, with poor physical and mental health, no income of my own, no family around to celebrate with, and the majority of my friendships being virtually sustained and maintained via my keyboard and computer screen, I can honestly say that it’s a miracle things aren’t worse than they are.

It’s time to return to The Twelve Steps of Recovery.

Whether the issue is Alcohol, Illegal Substances, Gambling, Shopping, Hoarding, Clutter, Sex/Relationship Addiction, Food Addiction/Eating Disorders or any other compulsive, obsessive, addictive behavior, there’s a group for that! There are local, face-to-face meetings, online meetings, and telephone meetings.

These are peer-led, peer-supported programs operated and served by people who have personally experienced the things which make our lives unmanageable. These are people who have learned a new way of thinking, of doing, of being. They’ve done so with the help and support of others. A majority of them have experienced healing, growth, and recovery as they have come to understand and surrender to a Higher Power. Others have difficulty with the Higher Power/God aspect of most Twelve Step Recovery programs and have established alternatives.

Here is an excellent online resource for those who are beginning to explore the Twelve Steps:

12Step.org ~ This is a comprehensive website dedicated to providing information and resources about the Twelve Steps and supporting those seeking “freedom from addictive behaviors.” Visitors to the site will find the following:

    • The Steps – a comprehensive look at each of the Twelve Steps, which have been generically adapted from the original 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous.
    • Meetings – a page offering brief explanations of face-to-face and online meetings with links to resources for locating meetings.
    • References – a page providing an overview of sources for the Twelve Step Recovery process.
    • Tools – worksheets, workbooks, and other tools that can be helpful to someone starting to work through the steps
    • Journal – free, downloadable desktop software for Windows XP, Vista, & 7; Mac OSX version 10.4, 10.5 and 10.6
    • Directory – search for Twelve Step resources by a variety of ways: Addiction, Approach, Non-English and many other options
    • Social – an opportunity to engage in their forum for those in recovery

The thing I’m learning to remember is that there are at least two people in a dysfunctional relationship. Both people are part of the dysfunction. Both people need to seek their own path to healing, growth, and recovery.

If your partner or spouse, friend, child, or parent is an abuser of substances or one who is engaged in compulsive/obsessive behaviors and/or addictions, that person is responsible for seeking his or her own process, or not. You can’t force it or coerce it. If you are experiencing distress because of their choices and actions, you are responsible for choosing to live with it, leave it, work with it, or whatever you do. They are not responsible for easing your distress or creating your happiness . . . you are. So, figure out what you need to do, then do it. Easier said than done, I know, because I’m in it right now and it’s a struggle. But, I have hope that the struggle is worth the outcome.