The Gathering on Mental Health and the Church

You are invited to The Gathering on Mental Health and the Church, a one-day event designed to encourage individuals living with mental illness, educate family members, and equip church leaders to provide effective and compassionate care to any faced with the challenges of mental illness.

I have a lot of friends who experience mental health issues who have been “turned off” of Christianity, Church, God, and organized religion in general. A lot of that has to do with the fact that when people with varying kinds of mental health issues are undiagnosed and untreated or misdiagnosed and treated incorrectly, we make choices and act out in ways which are considered willfully sinful and have been ostracized, criticized, rejected, and told that we are lacking because if we had faith and if we really loved God and Jesus, we would be different.

If you are a Christian and/or if you have experienced mental health issues which caused Christians to be hurtful to you and give you a distorted representation of the character and nature of God, this could be one of the most important events to attend and conversations to have.

Please visit http://mentalhealthandthechurch.com/to find out more and join the conversation.

Blog For Mental Health 2014

Canned Food Drives and What Families in Need REALLY Need

My daughter is a Dutch Broista and today, Valentine’s Day, she made the following announcement:

It’s Dutch Luv day! If you bring three cans of food to any Dutch Bros location you get a free coffee!!

According to “Household Food Security in the United States in 2012,” a report published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, in September 2013 (Coleman-Jensen, Alisha, Mark Nord, and Anita Singh, ERR-155), 14.5 percent of American households were food insecure at least part of the year during 2012, with 5.7 percent of them experiencing very low food security “- meaning that the food intake of one or more household members was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food

Food Insecurity Graphic

So, almost 6 of every 100 households in the USA wasn’t able to ensure that every family member had enough food to eath throughout the year in 2012. Almost 9 of every 100 households were not able to meet the healthy, nutritional needs of their family members, even if they had enough food to eat. In summary, nearly 15 out of every 100 households accessed or needed to access emergency food distribution sites in 2012.

The 2013 Point-In-Time Count of Homelessness in Multnomah County report presented to Portland Housing Bureau, 211info, and Multnomah County by Kristina Smock Consulting in June 2013 reported:

On a single night in January, more than 2,869 people in Multnomah County were homeless. They were families with children, veterans, women fleeing domestic violence, unaccompanied youth and disabled adults, men and women of every age.

I’m uncertain if those families and households who are experiencing homelessness are accurately represented in the USDA report of households which are food insecure. I’m sure the effort was made to include them, but I’m almost equally sure that families and people who are shelter insecure aren’t necessarily answering census questionnaires.

What I know from personal experience of having needed and received food boxes is this: the type and quality of food donated for food banks to provide families in need has diminished over the past 25 years and that despite the rising food insecurity and need to access resources, many people will not go to food banks because the food provided does not actually meet the needs of the people it’s supposed to be helping.

I think it’s great that companies and corporations run canned food drives in an effort to increase donations of food to help their local communities out. Offering access to free or reduced cost access to their services and products seems like a really great idea. However, my observation and experience has been that the people who need or want the free or reduced access can be the same people who experience food insecurities and may be “recycling” unused items received from food boxes they have received.

Foods like dried and canned beans are good protein sources, but I know a lot of people don’t know how to prepare dried beans and may not have recipes or know how to best serve these foods to their families in ways that they will eat them. So bags and cans of beans are often recycled or stack up from their lack of knowledge and inability to use what’s been donated.

Canned foods like corn, green beans, carrots, and peas are inexpensive on the grocery store shelves and because of this are often donated in overabundance to food pantries. I honestly wonder, though, how many of the households donating these canned goods actually use these as staple foods in their weekly menu planning – especially the canned peas and carrots.

I’ve had canned ravioli and sphaghetti-like foods in food boxes, as well as boxed things like Hamburger and Tuna Helper. These kinds of food are extremely high in sodium and added sugars, not to mention the fact that these items are supposed to be used WITH hamburger and tuna fish, which often are not included in the food box.

Other unhealthy and unpalatable canned food items include fruits in heavy and light syrup instead of natural juices, nut butters and jellies full of preservatives and additives. Cheap bags and boxes of white rice and pastas made from overly processed, blanched grains, then enriched with chemical nutrients are a frequent staple of food boxes as well. Ramen noodles are the cheapest and worst contributions to food banks. The noodles are high fat, high sodium, and low in nutrients.

Sometimes “juices” are donated. Often these aren’t actual juices but colored sugar water flavored with up to 10% juice. Occasionally “treats” are included like candy, chips, and baked goods or baking mixes for baked goods.

What I find truly disheartening about this is the amount of “fat shaming” and “poverty blaming” that criticizes families who are requesting or needing assistance with housing and food for being obese and unhealthy, yet the foods being donated to them are the very foods which contribute to obesity and poor health.

If you are going to donate food to help the families and households in need please keep in mind the following:

1) Easily used protein: Canned tuna, salmon, and chicken are at a premium for families who may be without the use of a stove to cook on and space to store food. These are foods which are more expensive and least accessible by families dependent on food donations and supplemental nutrition programs.

2) Whole grain and multi-grain products: There is some debate regarding the impacts of grains on health. However, the fact is that most families use grains as a staple in their diets, especially those families most at risk of hunger. Whole grain and multi-grain products are less refined and processed and contain higher nutritional values. They are also more expensive and often out of the budgets of families who may need to access donated food.

3) Fresh & frozen foods can be donated directly to the food banks and provide better nutrition than canned and boxed items. Extra lean ground beef, lean cuts of pork, stew meat, boneless, skinless chicken breasts, lean roasts and steaks are foods that food insecure families can’t afford for themselves. Find out if the local food distribution centers have freezers to store these items.Other refrigerated items like eggs, Greek yogurt, and soy, almond, & whole milks are beneficial. Fresh fruits and vegetables which aren’t overripe and badly bruised or nearing spoilage are helpful.

4) Non-food products which cannot be purchase using SNAP benefits, are more expensive, and helpful in performing daily activities like working, seeking employment, and feeling comfortable in pulbic are needed: Feminine and personal hygeine products like tampons, and pads; razors for women and men; toilet paper, paper towels, facial tissue, and moist wipes; body wash, shampoo & conditioner, anti-perspirant, toothpaste & toothbrushes; infant supplies like diapers, baby wipes. Household cleaning supplies are also needed.

One of the most disheartening and difficult things for any person, especially a parent or grandparent to do is go to an agency of strangers and admit that we are unable to provide for our family’s needs and wellbeing, to fill out an in depth questionnaire questioning our income sources, bills, and the events and choices which led to us needing to ask for the assistance, and then to receive assistance which isn’t helpful to meeting our needs then face the reports, opinions, and comments in various media from multiple souces which criticize, shame, and blame us for being poor, obese, and needing assistance in the first place. It’s dehumanizing, depressing, and humiliating.

What if those of us who can afford to donate the kinds of healthy foods we are committed to serving our own loved ones committed to donating that same kind of love and nurture to those in need? What if we stopped trying to decide if people are worthy of helping and just decide that helping others in need was worthwhile regardless of why they may be in need? What if we served people instead of statistics and populations?

Discover more truths about hunger at The Oregon Food Bankhttp://www.oregonfoodbank.org/

RELATED ARTICLES:

10 Last Minute Valentine’s Gifts from the Dollar Store, Lanark County Food Bank, http://lanarkcountyfoodbank.ca/

Abuse Recovery Ministries & Services

I know that not everyone identifies as a Christian and I understand that, often, women who have experienced different kinds of abuse, especially those who are married and attend Christian churches or are members of certain Christian denominations, may have very tragic and distorted histories with the way the Bible has been taught and how they may have been treated or admonished to stay in relationship with their abusers. As a matter of fact, this has frequently been a way where women who have been physically, sexually, mentally, and emotionally victimized by their abusers may also have experienced a form of abuse known as spiritual abuse.

In our modern society where so many people of faith hold firm positions on matters such as marriage equality and a woman’s right to choose what happens with her body, even if she is pregnant and the expression of these positions is done in loud and vociferous ways with messages of hate and hell, spiritual abuse can happen indirectly, causing those who have suffered at the hands of human men and women who do not have a connection to a faith community, the Bible, God, or Christ and wind up taking paths and making choices which are at odds with biblical principles and values to experience spiritual abuse through the witnessing of vitriol and hate messages publicly displayed and declared as spiritual truth.

Although I consider myself a Christian, I am uneasy with my faith much of the time and am still working through my understanding and beliefs about who God is and His character. Some might even consider me a heretic and misguided because I have doubts about doctrine and teachings regarding hell, condemnation, and God’s views on wickedness and sin. This means that I have a tendency to be somewhat cynical and suspicious when encountering many ministries which are in place to assist people who are often marginalized and treated as victims in our society.

The thing that I’ve been realizing though, as I learn more about myself and my responses to how I’ve been abused in my past, long before anything that was experienced in the almost 18 year toxically codependent relationship which has had a lot of similarities to Domestic Violence relationships in its outcomes, and how I’ve become the person I have been, is that I never had a healthy picture of parents or adults, therefore I also never developed a healthy picture of who God is and what His character is like. I’m not alone in this.

As children, we form our first sense of self and identity from the adults and caregivers in our lives. We also come to understand God, His character, His will, and His role in our lives from these early, foundational relationships and how they are formed. This informs our continued development of personal and individual identity. When we grow up without a healthy picture of God and other people, especially caregivers and people in authority in our lives, we wind up without healthy and constructive pictures of what healthy and constructive adult relationships look like. This then becomes foundational and instrumental tothe kinds of relationships we develop and maintain.

Now that I am transitioning from toxic codependency with a person whose personal identity and sense of personhood is as damaged and distorted as my own has been, it is important that I learn what healthy, functional, and constructive looks like in order for me to learn how be be healthy, functional, and constructive. I need to learn what it looks like spiritually regarding God and His character, because that is the filter which guides and informs my own personal sense of identity.

Being in a Her Journey group through Abuse Recovery Ministries and Services is teaching me this. There may be some doctrinal issues that may arise which I am uncomfortable with. However, the purpose of this group is not to discuss or debate doctrine or theology. It’s purpose is to rebuild a healthy, constructive, and functional picture of God, His character, and how He views and loves His children, specifically those who have been abused and who have deveolped a distorted sense of self and a distorted understanding of God’s person, character, and will.

This class and group may not be for everyone, or it may not be within every person’s comfort zone. However, whether you are a Christian or not, whether you believe in a diety or many dieties or none at all, coming into the room and experiencing first hand the love, acceptance, and constructive teaching about the fact that we are meant to be loved and are intended for a life and a purpose other than to serve as another person’s physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, and/or spiritual punching bag and garbage receptacle for all their bad moods and problems, is a good thing to hear and learn about.

There are twelve classes covering many topics including boundaries and other things which may not seem to be spiritual in their focus, but have critical spiritual components. These classes are free and can be taken as often as needed. There is a camaraderie from engaging with other women who are going through their own journeys of healing and growth.

If you have a different spiritual background and perspective from Christianity, the principles of God’s character and the kind of life He wants someone coming out of abuse to grow in are still valid and valuable teachings which can have concrete life application. Take what you need, what serves you, and leave the rest behind.

Home Free: A Child Advocacy and Parent Support Service for Families

In my first post for the first month of this new year, I shared my story by offering readers A look at Domestic Violence. I gave an overview of my personal history and the struggles that my family and I have experienced, which have been clearly identified by others as Domestic Violence. “Others” being my now adult children, friends and acquaintances, and various professions/service providers over the years. Yet, I’ve always struggled with the labels, categorizations, and definitions which are associated with the words: Domestic Violence.

In Changing Perceptions, I asked several questions about what comes to mind for you when you read or hear the words Domestic Violence. If you’re anything like me, you may think of a manipulative, control-freak, who is on a massive power trip, and truly enjoys the systematic destruction and subjugation of the ego and personal identity of the partner in the relationship. You know, the sociopathic stalkers in movies like Sleeping With the Enemy and Enough.

According to the Parenting Support Advocate with the VOA Home Free program I met with, it takes an average of seven attempts for a person who has experienced Domestic Violence to leave the abusive relationship permanently. “Average” meaning that there are those who may have done so successfully the first try and others who had to make many more attempts, combine all of the reported efforts and divide by the number of people who were queried in the research and that’s the average number.

I shared with her how uncomfortable I have been with the DV label and it’s associated titles/roles: Batterer, Abuser, Victim, Surviver, Perpetrator, Willing Participant. I’m not uncomfortable with or opposed to them when they are applied to situations and circumstances with clear-cut physical and verbal abuse where the one party physically harms and/or uses verbal threats, violent language, and uses his or her body and words in a way to diminish and control the other party. It’s the situations and circumstances like the one I have been in where the actions and behaviors of the “abuser” are more likely the result of a combination of neurological/cognitive developmental delays which are less than obvious in combination with some unidentified & untreated mental health issues, which may be a combination of genetics and environmental factors present during the developmental years of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Especially when that person has made the effort to grow and change through participation in therapuetic processes.

The outcomes may be similar, if not identical. Which is why it is so often met with the overly simplistic method of categorization, “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck . . . ”

I’m a very firm believer in, “Don’t judge a book by its cover.”

The representative from the Home Free program has been very constructive for me to speak to, interact with, and learn from. She has not informed me of her view and take of my situation and circumstances. She hasn’t tried to convince me why I should use or accept these labels or define what I have experienced as Domestic Violence. She has listened with clear intention to understand me and my experiences. She has not given me “knowing” looks or sly glances when I have spoken about the difficulties I have with the labels which are part and parcel of receiving services through the domestic violence resources and systems. She has reassured me that I am the expert on my life and on my relationships and that she is here as an Advocate for me, not as a therapist, counselor, or other service provider.

When we met for the second time, yesterday, it was in my home. She and I met in the living room while the Child Advocate met with my five year old daughter and they played together in her room full of toys. The Child Advocate is not a play therapist, but her role is to be present and engaged with the child, following the child’s lead during play and interaction. If the child brings up emotions or thoughts which are difficult or confusing regarding anything the child has witnessed or experienced, whether it is related to the relationship issues between the partners in the domestic violence relationship or anything else, then the Child Advocate’s task it to help the child talk through and process those thoughts and feelings in healthy and constructive ways, understanding that he/she is not in any way responsible for any of the things which have happened or responsible for the feelings and words of others.

Historically, I have not done a great job at seeing and understanding when my children were experiencing difficulties in how they were perceiving and internalizing those perceptions regarding the things I was dealing with in our lives together. Dealing with the cycles of depression and hypomania, being severely codependent, and not having processed and dealt with my own emotional and psychological trauma from childhood all blinded and deafened me to the things my two oldest children were struggling with. I did the best I could to get them help and services, connect them to others who seemed more knowledgeable or better qualified than myself, to help them. However, I wasn’t emotionally or psychologically present and available to help them as their mother. I’m determined to do better by their youngest sibling.

That is why I’m so grateful to the Home Free program and the people I am working with in it. They are not only able to see and advocate for what my littlest is experiencing, they are here to help me see and advocate for her as well.

Volunteers of America Home Free Program

Emergency Hotline: (503) 771-5503 (Mon – Fri, 8AM – 6PM)

Business Line: (503) 239-3929

“Home Free’s mission is to assist adults and children surviving domestic violence to move not just toward safety, but toward freedom and all that the word home suggests.

Our programs provide long-term, post-crisis support designed to prevent victims from having to return to an abusive home. Our commitment to reaching survivors means mobile, active advocacy that reduces the barriers to domestic violence support services. All of our services are free, flexible, and individualized, and driven by survivors’ needs and goals.”

Blog for Mental Health 2014

“I pledge my commitment to the Blog for Mental Health 2014 Project. I will blog about mental health topics not only for myself, but for others. By displaying this badge, I show my pride, dedication, and acceptance for mental health. I use this to promote mental health education in the struggle to erase stigma.”  ~ A Canvas of the Minds

Blog For Mental Health 2014

I personally have dealt with mental health issues and have family members and friends who have done so, identified or not, throughout the entirety of my life.

There are a number of things I didn’t know and understand for a very long time about Mental Health is that much of the “acting out” behavior of adults behaving badly – things like compulsive behaviors, out of control/extreme emotions and mood swings, addictions, domestic violence, child abuse, sexual abuse – can all have their roots in poor mental health and/or be exacerbated by lack of mental health support.

All of those things I just named, I have experienced and in a lot of ways continue to experience on a daily basis.

I knew I had depression. I’ve been seeking services and treatment for it in one way or another since I was pre-adolescent. My first therapeutic encounter was an Incest Survivors group when I was 11 years old. A few years later, after my mom’s depression and my out of control, angry little girl issues clashed, and she turned guardianship of me over to her younger brother and moved away, we got a call stating she’d killed herself. That single event, in combination with everything that had gone on before, I can now see, flipped a switch in my brain, that has kept me on a psychological and emotional spinning, roller coaster ride of chaos, overwhelm, codependency and dysfunction, for the past 33 years.

It has impacted, informed, and impaired all of my relationships with other people: family, friends, co-workers, people in my faith community. It has affected my ability to parent my children in healthy and constructive ways, setting the stage for them to experience psychological/emotional neglect and abuse from me and partners in my dysfunctional and distorted adult relationships. It has impaired my ability to work and educate myself toward achieving my personal and professional dreams and potential.

I have carried and lived with the stigma and shame, blame, and labelling from myself and others because, as a mother, I should have known better, done better, been better.

It’s taken me a tremendously long time to get to where I am today, admitting my powerlessness over the fact that my brain and emotions are not under my control and that I have to be completely honest about that with myself and with others, and especially with my Higher Power, if I am to be able to get healing and live a healthier, more functional life.

I am pledging to participate in this Bloggers for Mental Health 2014 project in an effort to educate, inform, offer resources, reduce stigma, and raise awareness and sensitivity to the Mental Health Issues and Challenges that people experience, every single day . . . people whom we love and care about, people we work with, people we live next door to, people we go to church with, attend school with, or drive down the road beside. People who may just be us.

A Canvas of the Minds is a community of individual bloggers who either experience or whose lives have been impacted by another who experiences Mental Health issues and challenges. The blog posts shared on Canvas are focused on Mental Health issues and concerns. The personal blogs of the individual bloggers can run the gamut and are not necessarily exclusive or focused on Mental Health issues, however, reading through them with the context and understanding of the impacts and challenges the writers have experienced due to Mental Health issues while reading whatever it is that they have written can provide a rich and layered understanding of people who deal with Mental Health challenges as being more than a diagnosis or partner/caregiver of someone with a diagnosis.

Reading through their posts can offer hope and the knowledge that, however isolating and debilitating a Mental Health diagnosis may be, it is possible to survive, live, and even thrive with one.

It is our collective story of hope, strength, experience, and wisdom.

Join the conversation, read, follow, comment, write, and share:

On Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/acanvasoftheminds

On Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/canvasminds/

Cell Phones for Low-Income Households

I lost my phone today.

I’ve been calling it a handheld computer. I did everything with it. I mean EVERYTHING!

I used it’s calendar and alerts to help me stay on track and on time with all the different appointments, groups, and meetings. I used it’s timer to keep track of when it was time to transfer laundry, track time limits and warnings for both my daughter and myself. I had apps for all of my writing and online interactions. All of my contacts for service providers, friends, and acquaintances. You name it, my phone had that information in it. So, I’m a little freaked out that the phone has gone missing, because whoever finds has access to all of that data.

I’m not afraid of losing the data, because most of it is backed up through the apps themselves and either on this computer or online.

What does concern me most, however, is not having a way to call someone if there’s an emergency with myself or my daughter. There isn’t a way for my adult children to call me if they experience an emergency, either.

I also need a way to call service providers and for them to call me.

I am currently without an income other than SNAP benefits.

Which actually means that I qualify for the Lifeline Program for Low-Income Consumers, a federal assistance program to provide households at or below 135% of the Federal Poverty Line (FPL) with either discounted or free phone service via land lines or pre-paid cell phone services.

“To participate in the program, consumers must either have an income that is at or below 135% of the federal Poverty Guidelines or participate in one of the following assistance programs:

Federal rules prohibit eligible low-income consumers from receiving more than one Lifeline discount per household.  An eligible consumer may receive a discount on either a wireline or wireless service, but not both.  A consumer whose household currently is receiving more than one Lifeline service must select a single Lifeline provider and contact the other provider to de-enroll from their program. Consumers violating this rule may also be subject to criminal and/or civil penalties.” (Source: http://www.fcc.gov/lifeline)

The Universal Service Adminstrative Company oversees the Lifeline Program. Eligibility can be verified and Service Providers in each state can be located by navigating to: http://www.lifelinesupport.org/ls/.

The following highlights the cell phone providers in Oregon. The cell phones are from pre-paid service providers and the plans vary in what services and quantities they provide to Lifeline customers:

  • Assurance Wireless offers 250 minutes/250 texts each month for free, with other paid-plan options for additional minutes. 800-395-2108
  • AT&T Mobility doesn’t have a free plan, but offers 300 Anytime Minutes /1000 Night & Weekend Minutes with Nationwide Long Distance Included for $12.24/mo. 800-377-9450
  • Cricket Communications offers a $10/mo. discount for eligible customers. 800-975-3708
  • U.S. Cellular does not have a free plan. Paid plans are available for 300 anytime minutes for $29.99 or 700 for $39.99. Both plans have options for receiving unlimited incoming calls from a wide area; it is an additional $6/mo. to add this feature on the 300 min/mo. plan, but is included at no additional cost on the 700 min/mo. plan. Both plans offer wide area night and weekend minutes for an additional $6/mo. Voice Mail, Call Waiting, Caller ID, Call Forwarding, Three-Way Calling and Incoming Text Messages. Wide Area appears to mean nationwide calling. 800-447-1339
  • SafeLink Wireless offers 250 minutes/1,000 texts for free provided by TracFone Wireless. 800-SAFELINK

If you or someone you know is having difficulty maintaining telephone service, is receiving assistance through a qualified federally funded subsidy assistance program OR has a household income at or below 135% of the Federal Poverty Line, help is available.

The Recovery Group: An online Overeaters Anonymous resource, not just for overeaters

A couple of days ago I wrote about Twelve Step Recovery Resources. The links shared there are for those who may just be beginning to explore recovery and learn about it without already knowing or understanding what their “drug/addiction of choice is.

This is the time of year when people resolve to get healthier, get in shape, lose weight, tone up, slim down, get fit to fit in…

Many have learned to hate their bodies, to hate themselves because of their bodies. Some have a love/hate relationship with food. Others experience Body Dysmorphia, Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge Eating Disorder, Food Restricting, Laxative Abuse, Exercise Abuse.

Compulsive Eating Disorders are probably undiagnosed, unidentified, unrecognized, and untreated in significant numbers in the United States. Possibly elsewhere as well.

Uncontrollable, out of control, overwhelming thoughts, emotions, compulsions to shovel everything that can be eaten or fast until the mirror’s distorted image stops showing dimples in the skin where dimples shouldn’t go, wrack and rule so many of us. We are ashamed. We hide the evidence of our binges. Others hide the evidence of the food they pretended to eat. Still others experience a paralyzing inability to let food pass their lips and their bodies immediately, automatically, involuntarily eject whatever has been taken in.

Type II Diabetes; Hypoglycemia; Hyperglycemia; Insulin Resistance; Ulcers in the stomach, throat, and mouth; Kidney failure; Dehydration; Heart disease; Stroke; on and on and on the lists go on.

Diets don’t work ~ or not for long. Weight lost finds it’s way back and brings extra friends along for the ride. Weight found soon disappears again. Both are visible no matter how invisible the body’s wearer tries to be.

Sometimes starting in the early childhood of those being cared for by others who learned to restrict or binge at the tables of their forebears.

On and on and on the cycles go: Up, Down, Side to Side, Overweight, Underweight – Nobody’s perfect at the perfect weight.

Come home to OA. Let us love you while you learn to love yourself. Keep coming back until you get your miracle, then stay and share yours with others until they get theirs. Accept. Validate. Love.

Boundaries: No crosstalk – no interrupting, no judging, no feedback, no advice.

Remember: Who shows up here, what is shared here, when you leave here, let it stay here.

Anonymous: First names only. Psuedonyms and screen names are safe too.

TYFS ~ Thank you for sharing your ESH ~ experience, strength, and hope. KCB ~ Keep Coming Back

It works if you work it.

I’ll see you in the rooms and catch you on the loops. Meetings every three hours, on the hour, on the 3’s ET.

The Recovery Group Meetings ~ http://www.therecoverygroup.org/support/meetings.html

Choose a doorway: Doorway 1 is the “pretty” version of the room. Doorway 2 is the “old school” veneer. Same room, same meeting, same folks.

Through these doors you will find HOPE.